Shark Identification and Taxonomy

There are 12 families of sharks, rays and chimaeras in Indonesia: Hexanchiformes, Squaliformes, Squatiniformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Pristiformes, Rhinobatiformes, Torpediniformes, Rajiformes, Myliobatiformes, and Chimaeriformes.

Hexanchiformes is is a family of sharks which live in the deepest and coldest waters in Indonesia – also known as cow shark / six gills shark / seven gills shark group. They are ovoviviparous that cannot survive in fresh water, they are normally can be found in 27 – 1,000 m underwater depth, and commonly in 300 – 600 m depth.

Squaliformes sometimes described as dogfish shark group which has three families and more than 80 species. It is known for its cylindrical bodies bearing two dorsal fins (some with spines), no anal fin, and long snouts. Both jaw in many species have strong cutting teeth in short mouth. They live in all oceans reaching depths of almost 6,000 m, all species hatch young from eggs within the body

Squatiniformes is angelshark group consists of a single family (so far) with about 13 species. It is distinctive group with it appearance as a raylike fishes with mottled backs. Squatiniformes have two dorsal fins, no anal fin, and a large pectoral fins that reach forward over the gills.

Orectolobiformes consists of 7 families, 33 species of sharks group features piglike snouts and short mouth that, in most species connect by grooves to the nostrils. The nostrils boast unique barbels on ther inside edges.

Lamniformes sometimes named as mackarell sharks which have long snouts and mouths that stretch behind the eyes. They also features two dorsal fins and an anal fin. This species range from intertidal areas to open ocean at depths of almost 1,300 m.

Carcharhiniformes is the most common shark group, with more than 200 species. They are normally live in tropical and temperature water, and considered as most numerous sharks. They have an anal fin, two dorsal fins, an elongated snout, and a long mouth that reaches behind the eyes, with teeth ranging from small and cuspidate to large and bladelike.

Pristiformes corresponds with sawshark group that resembles miniatur sawfishes, live in bottom with 7 species in a single family. The sawshark snout may be used to disable prey. All species hatch young from eggs within the body.

Rhinobatiformes is guitarfish group which can attains 71 – 300 cm. They have long stout tails and small pectoral discs, two large subequal and widely separated dorsal fins present.

Torpediniformes is electric ray group that features flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarge pectoral fins

Rajiformes is larges group of rays, sawfish and skates, it consists more than 600 species which have flattened bodies and large, wing-like pectoral fins that are attached to the side of their heads and run the lengthy of their body

Myliobatiformes is group of stingray fishes which features their disc is strongly depressed and varies from oval longitudinally to much broader than long, the tail is well markedd off from the body sector, very short to long whiplike, and equipped with poisonous spine in some species.

Chimaeriformes is often named as ratfishes group, which is normally marine bottom-feeders of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

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